Scientiﬁc studies have concluded that like barley, oats contain a special kind of ﬁber called beta-glucan found to be especially eﬀective in lowering cholesterol. Sorghum May Help Treat Human Melanoma: Scientists in Madrid studied the eﬀect of three diﬀerent components from wine and one from sorghum, to gauge their eﬀects on the growth of human melanoma cells. J. Epub 2009 Jul 31. In general, a serving of grain is an ounce-equivalent of food, such as a slice of bread; a half, cup of cooked cereal, rice or pasta; or about 1 cup of dry cereal (, cups for some unsweetened puffed cereals). Download a Printer Friendly handout of this page (170K PDF). Total cholesterol and LDL (“bad”) cholesterol signiﬁcantly decreased with the addition of barley to the diet 86). Barley is highest in ﬁber of all the whole grains, with common varieties clocking in at about 17% ﬁber. Despite the mandated enrichment program of refined flours, they continue to lack necessary dietary fiber, and in essence are a ‘ghost’ of their former selves – delicious, nutrient-dense whole grains that add real substance to the human diet. Several modes of actions however have been proposed. Fourth, increased intake of dietary fiber yield increased levels of antioxidants. In their natural state growing in the ﬁelds, whole grains are the entire seed of a plant. Whole grain dietary recommendations and current intake, describe a healthy eating pattern as one that includes grains, at least half of which are whole grains. “Good” (HDL) cholesterol was not aﬀected. Characterization of potentially chemopreventive phenols in extracts of brown rice that inhibit the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells. 2011;343:d6617. What’s more, quinoa is gluten free, which makes it extremely useful to the celiac community and to others who may be sensitive to more common grains such as wheat – or even to all grains in the grass family 116). When wheat kernels are cleaned, boiled, dried, ground by a mill, then sorted by size, the result is bulgur. Barley Pasta Lowers Cholesterol: University of California researchers fed two test meals to 11 healthy men, both containing beta-glucan. The goal of this study was to determine which of the four starch sources might prove useful in high-energy diets. They found that malting millet increased the bioaccessibility of iron (> 300%) and manganese (17%), and calcium (“marginally”), while reducing bioaccessibility of zinc and making no diﬀerence in copper. The researchers concluded that whole grain rye “evokes a diﬀerent metabolic proﬁle compared with whole grain wheat.” Speciﬁcally, mice consuming the whole grain rye had reduced body weight, slightly improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol 136). He'd been observing her the whole trip..., We spent the whole summer in Italy that year. Carotenoids abound in Corn food products: Carotenoids are plant pigments that act as antioxidants, and are especially associated with eye health. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. They also searched for any indication of the formation of peroxynitrite, an oxidant and nitrating agent that can damage a wide array of molecules in cells, including DNA and proteins. Whole grain and refined grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. A one ounce equivalent would be consistent with one slice of bread, ½ cup oatmeal or rice, or five to seven crackers. Buckwheat Health Benefits. It’s not surprising that quinoa supports good health, as it’s one of the only plant foods that’s a complete protein, oﬀering all the essential amino acids in a healthy balance. 2003, 73: 39-47. It contains important antioxidants. Brown rice is an excellent source of manganese. The barley pasta blunted insulin response, and four hours after the meal, barley-eaters had signiﬁcantly lower cholesterol concentration than wheat-eaters 87). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19878856, Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, August 2009; 22(4):359-63. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advised the public to consume at least half of all grains as whole grains, which typically means at least three servings of whole grains daily 55). Whole grain and legume acceptability among youths with type 1 diabetes. They also found that bioavailability of diﬀerent carotenoids varied according to the type of foods (breads, extruded corn puﬀs, porridge) 106). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15184005, Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. Examples of foods made with whole grain or wholemeal ingredients include wholemeal and mixed-grain breads, rolls, wraps, flat breads and English muffins, whole grain breakfast cereals, wheat or oat flake breakfast biscuits, whole grain crispbreads, rolled oats, wholemeal pasta, brown rice, popcorn, bulgar (cracked wheat) and rice cakes. Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms. This investigation also showed that a combination of amaranth oil with a low salt antiatherogenic diet is more effective to reduce the amount of blood cholesterol than just the low salt antiatherogenic diet alone 76). Barley Lowers Serum Lipids: University of Connecticut researchers reviewed 8 studies evaluating the lipid-reducing eﬀects of barley. Other colored rices have similarly higher nutrient levels, but aren’t as well studied as brown rice. J Hypertens 23, 475–481. At the end of the study, triglycerides were signiﬁcantly lower in the two groups consuming foxtail or proso millet, and levels of C-reactive protein were lowest in the foxtail millet group. Harvard School of Public Health: Health Gains from Whole Grains, Kansas State University: Healthful Whole Grains, Center for Science in the Public Interest: Whole Grains: The Inside Story, American Heart Association: Whole Grains and Fiber, U.S. Food and Drug Administration: The Scoop on Whole Grains, U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide: Requirements for Health Claims Made in Labeling, How to Tell if You Are Buying Whole-Grain Bread, Health Benefits Between Enriched Flour and Whole Wheat Flour. Streppel MT, Ocké MC, Boshuizen HC, Kok FJ, Kromhout D. Am J Clin Nutr. The ingredient statement will list whole grains by the specific grain, such as whole wheat flour, whole oats or whole grain corn. Whole grain and refined grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. In addition, whole grain intake is inversely associated with potential plasma biomarkers of obesity, including insulin, C-peptide and leptin. Fourth, either through glycemic control or reduced energy intake, dietary fiber has been shown to lower the risk for type two diabetes. 2015;175:373-84. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25559238, Jacobs DR, Jr., Andersen LF, Blomhoff R. Whole-grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of noncardiovascular, noncancer death attributed to inflammatory diseases in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Many whole grain products, such as ready-to-eat cereals, are light in color. Dietary Fiber. Most often, whole grains are milled into flour and used in bread, cereal, pasta, crackers or other grain-based foods. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 594–616. Gastroenterology. Learn more about They found that quinoa was especially rich in an antioxidant called quercetin and that quinoa had the highest overall antioxidant activity (86%) of all ten foods studied. fiber diet by contracting, which speeds the movement of the bowel contents towards excretion. Teﬀ grows in three colors: red, brown and white. A meta-analysis of seven major studies showed that cardiovascular disease (heart attack, stroke, or the need for a procedure to bypass or open a clogged artery) was 21% less likely in people who ate 2.5 or more servings of whole-grain foods a day compared with those who ate less than 2 servings a week 11).