A wider definition considers any independent suspensions having three control links or more multi-link suspensions. Weight transfer and load transfer are two expressions used somewhat confusingly to describe two distinct effects: the change in load borne by different wheels of even perfectly rigid vehicles during acceleration, and the change in center of mass (CoM) location relative to the wheels because of suspension compliance or cargo shifting or sloshing. Imagine the tire being squeezed between the weight of the vehicle above it and the road below it. What is Load Sensitivity? For example, if a tire has a load index of 92, it can support 1,389 pounds at maximum air pressure.  Formula 1 car tires may reach a peak sideforce at 3 degrees . The roll center of a vehicle is the notional point at which the cornering forces in the suspension are reacted to the vehicle body. This slip can be generated either by the tire's rotational speed being greater or less than the free-rolling speed, or by the tire's plane of rotation being at an angle to its direction of motion. He was Professor emeritus at Delft University of Technology in Delft, Netherlands. Imagine the tire being squeezed between the weight of the vehicle above it and the road below it. It is of fundamental importance in the field of vehicle dynamics, as it allows to understand the relationship between the deformation of the tire and the longitudinal forces acting upon it. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Relaxation length is a property of pneumatic tires that describes the delay between when a slip angle is introduced and when the cornering force reaches its steady-state value. Oversteer is what occurs when a car turns (steers) by more than the amount commanded by the driver. It is normally a good approximation to describe the relationship between friction coefficient and vertical load as linear. One edge of the wedge has a concave profile to contour to the wheel and increase the force necessary to overrun the chock. Another cause of rolling resistance lies in the slippage between the wheel and the surface, which dissipates energy. In practice, the maximum horizontal force Fy that can be generated is proportional, roughly, to the vertical load Fz raised to the power of somewhere between 0.7 and 0.9, typically. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Conventional pneumatic tires do not behave as classical friction theory would suggest. Conversely, understeer is what occurs when a car steers less than the amount commanded by the driver. Most commonly, chocks are seen on aircraft and train cars. The diagram below shows the tire from above, so that the road surface lies in the x-y plane. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. This slip angle results in a force, the cornering force, which is in the plane of the contact patch and perpendicular to the intersection of the contact patch and the midplane of the wheel. Hans Bastiaan Pacejka was an expert in vehicle system dynamics and particularly in tire dynamics, fields in which his works are now standard references. Load sensitivity describes how a tire's performance is affected by the weight it carries. In the automobile industry, weight transfer customarily refers to the change in load borne by different wheels during acceleration. Cornering force or side force is the lateral force produced by a vehicle tire during cornering. The vehicle to which the tire is attached is moving in the positive y direction. It was first introduced in the late 1960s on the Mercedes-Benz C111 and later on their W201 and W124 series. What is Load Sensitivity? rotate it around its vertical axis. Load sensitivity measures how much weight a tire can safely carry while it's in use. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. All tires manufactured for sale in the United States since March 31, 1979 are federally mandated to have the UTQG ratings on their sidewall as part of the DOT approval process, in which non-DOT approved tires are not legal for street use in the United States.