Antioxidant 2*. Monoterpenes are acyclic, monocyclic, or bicyclic C30 compounds synthesized by monoterpene synthases using geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) as substrate. Most terpenes are oily liquids at room temperature, except camphene which is a crystalline solid. Taxadiene, a diterpene, precursor to the diterpenoid taxol, an anticancer agent. Common monoterpenes found in essential oils are limonene, pinene, terpinene, and cymene. It will teach you chemistry simply and all the profiles and common and scientific names of your plants are contained in there as well. And most of these sub-groups can be broken down further into specific compounds. Are there any other Classes of Compounds in Essential Oils? Terpenes may be conceptualized as consisting of building blocks called isoprenes. Cedarwood, Sandalwood and Myrrh contain high amounts of sesquiterpenes. While terpenes and terpenoids occur widely, their extraction from natural sources is often problematic. Nan's Experience Essential Oils Membership is HERE!!! They also support cell regeneration. The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway (MEP/DOXP pathway), also known as non-mevalonate pathway or mevalonic acid-independent pathway, takes place in the plastids of plants and apicomplexan protozoa, as well as in many bacteria. Terpenes are the major components of rosin and of turpentine produced from resin. Terpenes are useful active ingredients as part of natural agricultural pesticides. Due to their low specific gravity, terpenes are not miscible with water. These compounds contribute to the flavor and aroma of plant from which they are extracted. There are two metabolic pathways that create terpenoids: Many organisms manufacture terpenoids through the HMG-CoA reductase pathway, known as the Mevalonate pathway, They all contain the functional group C10H16. It was discovered in the late 1980s.  Terpenes may be classified by the number of isoprene units in the molecule; a prefix in the name indicates the number of terpene units needed to assemble the molecule. Look no further! Terpenes impart the characteristic aroma of cannabis and may have synergistic effects with cannabinoids.. Particularly, terpene is often used broadly to refer to terpene alcohols such as linalool. Return from Chemistry of Essential Oil to Oil Facts. From the viscosity, volatility and medicinal properties, the chemistry profile can tell you a lot about the plant and your oil. There are other classes of compounds that are not discussed here but essential oils can contain small amounts of them. Repels insects 4. David Stewart's book The Chemistry of Essential Oils (Made Simple) is a fantastic reference for you to have on hand. Steroids, for example, are derivatives of the triterpene squalene. These are: Alkanes, Ethers, Carboxylic Acids, Lactones, Coumarins and Furanoids. These compounds contribute to the flavor and aroma of plant from which they are extracted. One such simple terpene is pinene, a component of cannabis extracts with a pine forest scent.  Essential oils are used widely as fragrances in perfumery and traditional medicine, such as aromatherapy.