In the early 21st century its urban population accounted for less than 10 percent of the total. After this, the town was under Nawab (King) Kumar Ghosal of Bally, West Bengal, and saw regular visits from the Governors-General and Commanders-in-Chief of British India. The unemployment rate in the city has come down from 36% in 1992 to 22.6% in 2006.  They and their rulers, with the exception of Bushahr, remained more or less inactive. After independence, many of the hilly territories were organized as the Chief Commissioner's province of Himachal Pradesh which later became a union territory. The settlement grew rapidly after this, from 30 houses in 1830 to 1,141 houses in 1881. As per the 2001 India Census, the city has a population of 142,161 spread over an area of 19.55 km².  Apples from Himachal are exported to other Indian states and even other countries. Kusum Sadrate and Rakesh Kumar Sharma of BJP are the present mayor and deputy mayor respectively..  The main forests in and around the city are of Pine, Deodar, Oak and Rhododendron. Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. Covering an area of 55,673 square kilometres (21,495 sq mi), it is a mountainous state. Thus Himachal emerged as the eighteenth state of the Indian Union. Most of the heritage buildings in the city are preserved in their original 'Tudorbethan' architecture. By the late 1830s, the city also became a centre for theatre and art exhibitions. Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. Subsequently, residential schools for pupils from upper-class families were established nearby. In 1819, Lieutenant Ross, the Assistant Political Agent in the Hill States, set up a wood cottage in Shimla. According to 2011 census, the majority religion of the city is Hinduism practised by 93.5% of the population, followed by Islam (2.29%), Sikhism (1.95%), Buddhism (1.33%), Christianity (0.62%), and Jainism (0.10%). Alongside the growth of heavier industry, thousands of artisan-based small-scale manufacturing units have remained in operation across the state. , Himachal is well known for its handicrafts. It is the principal commercial, cultural and educational centre of the state. Biological Conservation, 93 (3): 371-379. Kullu Valley, central Himachal Pradesh, India. Among these were the states of Kangra, Jaswan, Datarpur, Guler, Rajgarh, Nurpur, Chamba, Suket, Mandi, and Bilaspur. Shimla is well-connected by road network to all major cities in north India and to all major towns and district headquarters within the state. After the reorganisation of the state of Himachal Pradesh, the existing Mahasu district was named Shimla. The Elysium Tunnel (now known as the Auckland Tunnel), about 120 feet (37 m) in length, was also built in 1905.. 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Ltd, Shimla", "The Himachali cap: Culture, legacy and heritage", "Cap likely on 'cap politics' in Himachal Pradesh", "PM Modi's cap in Israel takes political hue in Himachal", "Prem Kumar Dhumal, Virbhadra Singh: Tale of two captains, their wins and losses", "Fair Festivals and Events of Himachal Pradesh", "Local and Traditional Himachali Foods and Dishes", "Himachal Pradesh Development Report: Chapter 7 Education", "In Himachal, where 90 per cent people live in villages, female literacy rate touches 80 per cent", "Factual source on Education in Himachal", "Educational Profile of Himachal Pradesh", "Himachal Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan & Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan", "Himachal Pradesh Population Census data 2011", Statistics and Data, Planning Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh, The Official Tourism Site of Himachal Pradesh, India, Autonomous administrative divisions of India, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Himachal_Pradesh&oldid=986563520, States and territories established in 1971, Punjabi-speaking countries and territories, Articles with failed verification from January 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 23,000.43 MW in five rivers basins i.e.  The state also has 30 wildlife sanctuaries and 3 conservation reserves. The railway route from Kalka to Shimla, with more than 806 bridges and 103 tunnels, was touted as an engineering feat and came to be known as the "British Jewel of the Orient". Different floral and other motifs are used. It was built to connect Shimla, the summer capital of India during the British Raj, with the Indian rail system. Most of the state lies on the foothills of the Dhauladhar Range. On 9 September 1844, the foundation of the Christ Church was laid. , Himachal is also said to be the fruit bowl of the country, with orchards being widespread. Snowfall in the region, which historically has taken place in the month of December, has lately (over the last fifteen years) been happening in January or early February every year. The judiciary is composed of the Himachal Pradesh High Court and a system of lower courts. The administrative head of the corporation is the commissioner who is appointed by the state government. Himachal Pradesh also hosts a campus of the prestigious fashion college, National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in Kangra. It has stretched from Hiranagar to Dhalli from one side & from Tara Devi to Malyana in the other. Scenic narrow-gauge rail lines run from Kalka to Shimla and from Pathankot (in Punjab) to Jogindarnagar. Recently the state government decided to change the city's name from Shimla to Shyamala, but seeing the negative response of public and the locals, state government dismissed the plan. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is one of the eleven mountain states and is characterized by an extreme landscape featuring several peaks and extensive river systems.  In meeting the constitutional obligation to make primary education compulsory, Himachal became the first state in India to make elementary education accessible to every child. The city has 13 anganwadis and 64 primary schools. To address this, a workshop on ‘Endangered Medicinal Plant Species in Himachal Pradesh’ was held in 2002 and the conference was attended by forty experts from diverse disciplines. Himachal Pradesh has many perennial snow-fed rivers and streams, in addition to four major watercourses. Local hangouts like the Mall and the Ridge area in the heart of the city. Thirty-three percent of the seats are reserved for women. The region adjacent to the plains of Punjab and Haryana consists of two stretches of the Siwalik (Shiwalik) Range (the Outer Himalayas) separated by long, narrow valleys. In a diary entry dated 30 August 1817, the Gerard brothers, who surveyed the area, describe Shimla as "a middling-sized village where a fakir is situated to give water to the travellers".