Vaccinations are generally recommended for those who engage in this practice. [, 1:1 observation and psychiatry consult. Consuming other people's feces carries the risk of contracting diseases spread through fecal matter, such as Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, pneumonia, and influenza. Because puppies taste everything and discover that feces are edible and, perhaps, tasty, especially when fed a high fat content diet. Some Animals Eat It. Our case series motivates an exploration of coprophagia as occurring in the context of thought content disorders in underlying psychiatric disorders. Rep. Pramila Jayapal swats down the lie that Progressives cost Democrats House seats by Egberto Willies (With membership, you can see # of pageviews) What are the risks? The youngest patient was 61 years old, Epilepsy (2), depression, cerebral atrophy and left hemispheric cognitive dysfunction (1), fluctuating topic confusional states (2), Speech disturbances (10), wanderers (8), persistent abnormal mouth movements (4), episodically aggressive (6), Coprophagia in neurologic disorders. Because of the protein content of the feces (particularly cat feces), or over-feeding, leading to large concentrations of undigested matter in the feces. Data extracted from eligible articles include last name of first author, publication year, type of study, characteristics of study population, psychiatric assessment of coprophagia, treatment offered and specific duration, treatment outcome, and conclusion. In the 1860s he visited France under  Napoleon, the Petite and described a puzzling phenomenon he witnessed first-hand. Since these disorders do not share a common pathophysiology, the question then arises of whether there may be common features shared by these disorders that may hint at the emergence of coprophagia in such patients. Coprophilia is a paraphilia (DSM-5), where the object of sexual interest is feces, and may be associated with coprophagia. No significant neurocognitive disorders were seen in either patient. Patients presented with co-occurring symptoms, such as incontinence, fecal smearing, [6], abnormal mouth movements, episodically aggressive behavior, wandering, speech disturbances [15], and hypersexuality [1]. Western Big Lie Propaganda Machine and the Color Revolution Psyop by Jeff J. Trump Is Sandbagging to Send Election to the House; Election Integrity Should Not Help Him by Jonathan Simon (With membership, you can see # of pageviews) Concerns have arisen that the practice of feeding chicken litter to cattle could lead to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad-cow disease) because of the crushed bone meal in chicken feed. 2016 May;263(5):1008-1014. doi: 10.1007/s00415-016-8096-1. This may lead to the exploring coprophagia as a symptom associated with underlying disorders of a thought content especially in patients with affective disorders. As for what could go wrong “beyond disease,” I suppose there’s always choking, although I found no reported cases of this other than one brain-damaged fellow who, if I understand the matter correctly, asphyxiated on hardened stool. The role of clozapine as a preferred medication for coprophagia may need to be studied further. [11], Thomas Pynchon's award-winning 1973 novel Gravity's Rainbow contains a detailed scene of coprophagia.[12]. Coprophagia, the consumption of feces, can be dangerous for humans. [Psychiatric and psychological aspects of premenstrual syndrome]. He quotes in his 'Notes of the Traveler' a routine report in one of the Paris newspapers on the recreational equestrian promenade in the Bulone Forest, that favorite park of all Parisians. He declined brain imaging for unclear reasons. Coprophagia is a rare and distressing disorder characterized by symptoms of compulsive consumption of feces. Harada, K. I., Yamamoto, K., & Saito, T. (2006). In prior case reports in the literature, the disorders often associated with coprophagia were cognitive disorders [1, 2] and schizophrenia spectrum disorders [4, 5]. The patient’s coprophagic behavior, however, did not resolve. We present their comorbidities with relevant findings associated with their acute presentation with coprophagic behavior. Psychiatric evaluation revealed cognitive dysfunction and depression. There was a slight improvement within the first week as he was better at communicating, but his coprophagic behavior continued unabated. Josephs, et al., 2016. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of available literature addressing these questions. These feces contain substantial amounts of semidigested food, particularly in the case of herbivores, owing to the inefficiency of the large animals' digestive systems. by Juan Cole (With membership, you can see # of pageviews) Initial assessment was limited as the patient had impoverished speech and was unable to communicate possible reasons for his behavior. The School. Laboratory work-up was within normal limits and a urine toxicology panel (which does not detect synthetic cannabinoids) was also negative for illicit substances. Dostoevsky wisely did not publish those notes of his outside of Russia or he might be rebuked, ostracized or even barred from entering France forever just like the modern coprophags had barred Robert Fisk from entering the US for his open criticism of the US and Israeli policies. He was unable to describe any specifics for his murder but felt that he deserved unusually cruel and harsh punishment from law enforcement that could only be prevented by consuming feces. [, Incontinence, smearing his own feces, coprophagia, A clinical study of adult coprophagics. Escalation of a fetish: coprophagia in a nonpsychotic adult of normal intelligence. A STAFF REPORT FROM THE STRAIGHT DOPE SCIENCE ADVISORY BOARD, Sign up for the Rick Santorum stumbles onto a truth, as Van Jones points out how Republicans fired Trump. Combing further through the journals, we find near-unanimous professional belief that virtually all human coprophages are mentally ill, retarded, or otherwise missing a few teeth off the main sprocket. Index. The minimum time to resolution of coprophagia reported has ranged from six weeks [4] to a maximum reported time of twenty-two weeks [1]. Reading 'To Kill a Mockingbird' in Russia, They Think Of Us As Slaves ( small note with big conclusion), Trump and Republicans Staging a Hayes/Tilden Coup; They Don't Need to Win Lawsuits, Just Stall, Trump Is Sandbagging to Send Election to the House; Election Integrity Should Not Help Him, Trump is Birtherizing Biden-- It Will NEVER Be Over, Chicago 7: Counter Cultural Learnings of America for Make Money Glorious Nation of Post-Truthvaluestan, Western Big Lie Propaganda Machine and the Color Revolution Psyop, Here Come the "Biden Stole the Election" Conspiracy Theories. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Enhancer Elements, Genetic Diet, Vegetarian Chronology as Topic. It is unclear if the feelings of guilt achieved levels of delusional thought content in both patients, but it was pervasive and severe enough to lead to coprophagic behavior. In addition, he expressed excessive guilt in regard to his forensic history, being a registered sexual offender, with prior incarceration for lewd conduct with three female minors. The medical comorbidities in this case series did not provide possible directions on underlying pathophysiology as much as the psychiatric presentations. Here, in Bottom-Up, Rob Kall is challenging humanity to tell itself a new story, one designed to free us from hierarchicalism to a more egalitarian, interconnected web of meaning." The second patient had a higher total risperidone dose than the first patient. Phenomena and Processes 3. He was oriented to person, place, and time. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Although there were multiple articles that reported on the same study population, only the most recent publication was included in our final review. To View Comments or Join the Conversation: "One of the primary means of human communication, internal and external, is storytelling. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. The slight improvement in thought content and process enabled him to express the symptoms associated with his coprophagia. by Abdus-Sattar Ghazali (With membership, you can see # of pageviews) It is considered to be a variant of pica. The Pathophysiology and Management of Coprophagia: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review, American University of Antigua College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA, Medical University of the Americas, Department of Psychiatry, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA, Extern, Department of Psychiatry, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA, Saba University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York Department of Psychiatry, Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA, Coprophagia in an 8-Year-Old Hospitalized Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Coprophagia has been treated using behavioral interventions, supportive psychotherapy, elemental diets, tricyclic anti-depressants, carbamazepine, haloperidol, and electroconvulsive therapy. Brown (With membership, you can see # of pageviews) The patient reported is a 32-year-old man with a past medical history of seizure disorder and a known psychiatric history of bipolar disorder with multiple inpatient hospitalizations for manic episodes during which he exhibited agitated and violent behavior. A comparison of possible associated findings on imaging could not be accomplished as patient two did not consent to neuroimaging. The most famous feces-eating insect is dung-beetle and the most ubiquitous is the fly. Coprophagia has also been observed in the naked mole rat. Eventually most of the dogs outgrow the habit. This, in turn, comes from the Greek comedians Aristophanes and particularly Menander, who often use the term skatophagos (σκατοφάγος). To prevent the scent from attracting predators, especially mother dogs eating their offspring's feces. All authors have participated in the procurement of this document and agree with the submitted case report. Apparently the Emperor was a regular there and the reporter practically choked on admiration describing His Majesty on horseback (in the real life Napoleon III was a very ugly, dwarfish character who looked horrible on horseback). House of Death: Trump's Endgame Plan to Kill Democracy by Chris Floyd (With membership, you can see # of pageviews) [How to reference and link to summary or text]. He was admitted to the acute inpatient service for a recurrent episode of agitation and threatening behavior in the community in the context of medication nonadherence and continuous use of synthetic cannabinoids. The professional and for that matter the popular literature on coprophagia is pretty thin. With humans it is much harder. Several psychiatric diseases which have been associated with coprophagia include dementia [1 1. Neuroimaging findings were diverse in the literature review, with many of the findings dependent on the underlying neurological disorders [1]. Domesticated and wild mammals are sometimes coprophagic, and in some species, this forms an essential part of their method of digesting tough plant material. Results: Coprophagia is the consumption of feces, from the Greek copros (feces) and phagein (eat). As a result of these questions on pathophysiology and management of coprophagia, we conducted a literature review on pharmacological approaches to coprophagia with a goal of determining the possible benefits of the psychotropics in both cases presented in this article. Conclusions: Some dogs may lack critical digestive enzymes when they are only eating processed dried foods, so they gain these from consuming fecal matter. He was commenced on risperidone 2 milligrams twice daily. Human Coprophagia Donepezil 10 mg daily, Memantine 5 mg twice daily, Ziprasidone 40 mg at bedtime, Duloxetine 90 mg daily, and Mirtazapine 15 mg daily (medication that was administered before the coprophagic behavior), Carbamazepine regimen titrated to a maximum dose of 300 mg tid, Phenytoin 100 mg bid, Dexamethasone 2 mg tid, Lorazepam, Coprophagic behavior ceased only with Carbamazepine, Supportive psychotherapy and tricyclic antidepressant, alcoholics anonymous meetings, K. A. Josephs, J. L. Whitwell, J. E. Parisi, and M. I. Lapid, “Coprophagia in neurologic disorders,”, T. R. Sharma, M. Aly, and B. Kavuru, “Coprophagia and pica in individuals with mild to moderate dementia and mixed (iron deficiency and macrocytic) anemia,”, M. Pardini, S. Guida, and L. E. Gialloreti, “Aripiprazole treatment for coprophagia in autistic disorder,”, M. D. McGee and T. G. Gutheil, “Coprophagia and urodipsia in a chronic mentally ill woman,”, D. A. Beck and N. R. Frohberg, “Coprophagia in an elderly man: a case report and review of the literature,”, R. L. Jenkins, “Management of The Retarded Child,”, J. T. Stewart, “Treatment of coprophagia with carbamazepine,”, M. Ramadan, “Effective treatment for pica and coprophagia in a patient with schizoaffective disorder with Ziprasidone,”, A. Bacewicz and K. Martin, “Coprophagia in an 8-Year-Old Hospitalized Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature,”, T. N. Wise and R. L. Goldberg, “Escalation of a fetish: Coprophagia in a nonpsychotic adult of normal intelligence,”, R. W. Byard, “Coprophagic cafe coronary,”, C. A. Donnellan and J. R. Playfer, “A case of coprophagia presenting with sialadenitis,”, S. L. Erickson, A. D. Gambrell, J. Fulcher, and M. Ward, “Coprophagic Asphyxiation in an Intellectually Disabled Woman,”, B. D. Friedin and H. K. Johnson, “Treatment of a Retarded Child's Faeces Smearing and Coprophagic Behaviour,”, N. Ghaziuddin and C. McDonald, “A clinical study of adult coprophagics,”.