}; Women were rounded up on the streets of Japanese-occupied territories, convinced to travel to what they thought were nursing units or jobs, or purchased from their parents asindentured servants. Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English, 0 && stateHdr.searchDesk ? { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, // FIXME: (temporary) - send ad requests only if PlusPopup is not shown { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; dfpSlots['btmslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/btmslot', [[300, 250], 'fluid'], 'ad_btmslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_btmslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); Records of the women’s subjugation is scant; there are very few survivors and an estimated 90 percent of “comfort women” did not survive the war. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. defaultGdprScope: true { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]] } }, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, Learn more in the Cambridge English-Japanese Dictionary. name: "unifiedId", { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, } The naturally ventilated classrooms were 3 °C warmer than the air-conditioned classrooms and occupants voted that conditions were also within the central three categories (surrounding neutral) of the ASHRAE thermal sensation scale—therefore equated with comfort. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654208' }}, FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. googletag.pubads().set("page_url", "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english-japanese/comfort"); googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_pt", "entry"); pid: '94' pbjsCfg = { Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, initAdSlotRefresher(); On December 13, 1937, Japanese troops began a six-week-long massacre that essentially destroyed the Chinese city of Nanking. timeout: 8000, 'increment': 0.5, name: "idl_env", { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, name: "identityLink", enableSendAllBids: false, var dfpSlots = {}; { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_c", ["business_financial_industrial_technology", "shopping_consumer_resources", "jobs_education_resumes"]); Find more Japanese words at wordhippo.com! { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [320, 50] }}, googletag.cmd.push(function() { pbjsCfg.consentManagement = { syncDelay: 3000 { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, },{ { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, params: { { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, }; { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. googletag.pubads().enableSingleRequest(); "sign-up": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signup?rid=READER_ID", 'cap': true Are these temperate-climate, air-conditioning based standards applicable in these locations? }, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, After the end of World War II, however, documents on the system were destroyed by Japanese officials, so the numbers are based on estimates by historians that rely on a variety of extant documents. }], Comfort standards (ASHRAE 55, ISO 7730) specify exact physical criteria for producing acceptable thermal environments, which include temperature, air movement, and humidity limits that are often difficult to comply with, particularly in the subtropical climate of Japan. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, When the issue was discussed in Japan, it was denied by officials who insisted that “comfort stations” had never existed. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 50] }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346698' }}, dfpSlots['houseslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/houseslot', [], 'ad_houseslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').setCategoryExclusion('house').addService(googletag.pubads()); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, The expansion of more comfort stations for these reasons was carried out after the horrific Rape of Nanking that took place during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 when the Japanese military raped around 20,000 women.. In 1990, the issueflared into an international dispute when South Korea criticized a Japanese official’s denial of the events. In 2007, Associated Press reportersdiscovered that the United States authorities allowed “comfort stations” to operate well past the end of the war and that tens of thousands of women in the brothels had sex with American men until Douglas MacArthur shut the system down in 1946. Though military brothels existed in the Japanese military since 1932, they expanded widely after one of the most infamous incidents in imperial Japan’s attempt to take over the Republic of China and a broad swath of Asia: theRape of Nanking. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446381' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, storage: { { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971065', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, type: "cookie", The mass rapes horrified the world, and Emperor Hirohito was concerned with its impact on Japan’s image. userSync: { { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, During the late summer 2000, we conducted surveys in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned schools, polling responses from 74 students, while simultaneously measuring indoor climate variables. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, },{ The name "comfort women" is a translation of the Japanese ianfu (慰安婦), a euphemism for "prostitute(s)". { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [300, 600] }}, In the years that followed, more and more women came forward to give testimony. iasLog("setting page_url: - https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english-japanese/comfort"); "authorizationFallbackResponse": { }; googletag.pubads().setTargeting('cdo_alc_pr', pl_p.split(",")); bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776336', position: 'btf' }}, ga('create', 'UA-31379-3',{cookieDomain:'dictionary.cambridge.org',siteSpeedSampleRate: 10}); For decades, the history of the “comfort women” went undocumented and unnoticed. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654174' }}, As Japan rebuilt after World War II, the story of its enslavement of women was downplayed as a distasteful remnant of a past people would rather forget. type: "html5", } But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!